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Forest Ecology

Layers of the Food Forest

Category: EcologyPermaculture

There are generally 8 identifyable layers to the forest ecology:
  1. Canopy (tall trees, large fruit & nut trees)
  2. Understorey (smaller fruit trees)
  3. Shrubs and Bushes (currants & berries)
  4. Herbaceous (herbs and flowers)
  5. Groundcovers (plants that live close to the ground)
  6. Climbers and Vines
  7. Rhyzosphere (Root) layer (storage root plants)
  8. Fungal and Bacterial layer
Other possible layers:
  • Emergent layer (very tall palms found in the wet tropics)
  • Sub-Canopy layer (understorey palms in sub-tropics and tropics)
  • Clumping layer (plants that clump together in bunches)
  • Small Herbs layer (in a temperate climate)
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